History and subway stations of Saint-Petersburg
Petersburg Metro entirely justifies its literal translation from French - "capital", in contrast to their German, British and American counterparts, referred to more prosaic - the subway.
History of Metro St. Petersburg November 15, 1955 opened the first station - Space Rebellion, the so-called "red" branch. Its first station was fully implemented to date at the time of Soviet-style - Stalin's empire. Metro and then conceived as a whole underground metropolis, not just utilitarian structures of the transport system. According to statistics, people in the metro carries around 10 years of his life, and so the Soviet people had to live these years at least, beautiful.
However, such a beautiful life in St. Petersburg got a lot later than other European capitals. If the first subway in London, opened January 10 1863goda, in the same year in August in St. Petersburg, allowed only the first competition, and the first tram at all in 1903godu, and the first bus in 1907.
We can not say that the Russian engineering thought so far behind - the emperor at the beginning of the century were given as many as 10 projects trestle road surface. Among engineers, the first urban railway construction is best known for P. Balinsky, even several times independently find sponsors for their ideas.
But St. Petersburg's city government solved then limited tram overpass because land than large state-owned investment (190 million rubles). And much more would spoil the appearance of the capital, and for underground work of this type did not exist the necessary equipment. After all, Metro St. Petersburg in the world is the most profound. Its tunnels are granite formations at the Archean era, and is the oldest era of the formation of our planet - about 4 billion years ago.
Metro stations in Saint Petersburg Petersburg Metro passes under the bed of the Neva river and through the complex species of soil, which dictates its own specific calculations, work, etc. For example, in the current stretch between stations Nevsky Prospect and Gorky there is part of the path where the Neva made significant changes in the sinking.
Metrostroevtsy here stumbled upon an unknown river basin, and the tunnel had to be significantly deepened. This is reflected in the fact that now the train passing by this place, the first carriage is at 6m. below the latter, which, incidentally, never seen by passengers. Another interesting effect is the so-called "slides" used in the St Petersburg metro. The train from the station goes down, which will reduce power consumption, and at the exit to the station, he rises at the expense of compressed air.
Petersburg metro on its three stations (Mayakovsky, Arcade, Petrograd) uses an unusual layout - "horizontal lift", invented and has taken root only in that city. This type of deep foundation closed station, wherein closed doors at the side spans, similar in appearance to conventional elevator. When approaching train to the station wagon door coincide exactly with the platform and the doors automatically when opened. I found this design a lot of advantages (among them - zero mortality on the tracks, the speed of construction of new stations) and a lot of disadvantages (including the construction of special vehicles)
Metpropoliten North stolitsyDlya first Metro of St. Petersburg were built separate lobbies with domes (m Pl.Vosstaniya station and at all built on the site of the destroyed this case the Sign of the temple, architecturally reminiscent of its predecessor - the rotunda with a spire with a star instead of a cross).
Later the St. Petersburg metro vestibules were embedded in the existing buildings in order to preserve the old image of the city. Grandiosity Stalin empire demanded expensive "jewelry" stations and the ideological and artistic content design. Area Revolt tells us about the events 1917goda expressed in the red marble sculptural reliefs and thematic. Vladimir - a white marble, Prospect veterans - a black Labrador.
Interesting in its artistic decision metro Avtovo here used bronze Florentine mosaic, crystal. Station light fixtures 700, and on the wall is a mosaic depicting a mother with a baby. During the war the area was St. Petersburg forward edge of defense, and this mosaic is devoted to this subject - the gilded swords and laurel branches symbolize the struggle for peace.
Metro Avtovo in PeterburgeAvtovo interesting in one fact: the station is decorated with columns entwined with gilded ribbons. This was the first widely used glass, under which lies a concrete pillar. It is these ribbons to hide the gap left by the case of precipitation in the concrete to prevent cracks on the glass.
However, the most support can not see - the decision was prompted Petrograd physicists and lay it in the application of optical focus. The inner surface of the column otgranena at a certain angle (80 '), and glass just sparkles, but not X-rayed.
In the history of St. Petersburg subway a lot of interesting things, it has accumulated so much that the fall of 2005 opened a special museum dedicated to this "beautiful underground city", located next to the station-Maritime.